新闻资讯
双语阅读:美国农业体系面临庞大危机,再不革新很可能会瓦解
发布时间:2021-09-04 05:04
  |  
阅读量:
字号:
A+ A- A
本文摘要:如果我们不改变当前的门路,美国的农业体系可能会瓦解翻译:涂博士让我们想象一个理想的餐盘内里应该有哪些食品吧。如果你像大多数美国人一样,那么盘子内里首先要有富厚的肉类,这些肉类来自用中西部的玉米和大豆喂大的动物,另外盘子里还应该有蔬菜,这些蔬菜大部门是从加利福尼亚州用卡车运过来的。肉类和蔬菜是美国食品体系内里最珍贵的两大瑰宝,而谁人能够给我们提供这两大瑰宝的奇特的风物线现在已经被死死锁在一个缓慢的生态瓦解历程中了。

亚博APP手机版

如果我们不改变当前的门路,美国的农业体系可能会瓦解翻译:涂博士让我们想象一个理想的餐盘内里应该有哪些食品吧。如果你像大多数美国人一样,那么盘子内里首先要有富厚的肉类,这些肉类来自用中西部的玉米和大豆喂大的动物,另外盘子里还应该有蔬菜,这些蔬菜大部门是从加利福尼亚州用卡车运过来的。肉类和蔬菜是美国食品体系内里最珍贵的两大瑰宝,而谁人能够给我们提供这两大瑰宝的奇特的风物线现在已经被死死锁在一个缓慢的生态瓦解历程中了。

加利福尼亚州是全球最大的地中海气候区域之一,几十年来加州农业的蓬勃生长得益于利便易得的水供应。内华达山脉(Sierra Nevada)是沿着加利福尼亚州东部侧翼延伸的山脉,山上每年会有大量积雪,当积雪融化后,雪水会逐次流入由政府制作的大坝,运河和渡槽组成的庞大网络,为相近的中央谷地域的农民提供浇灌用水。在雪水不够的年份,农民可以抽取地下那经由数千年来积累起来的地下蓄水,以弥补浇灌用水的不足。可是,有越来越多的研究讲明,内华达山脉上的积雪在已往数十年来一直呈整体下降趋势,这在2012-2016年加利福尼亚大旱灾中体现的最为显着。

随着气候变暖,在接下来的几十年中山上的积雪将会进一步淘汰。劳伦斯·伯克利国家实验室研究人员在2018年揭晓的一篇论文清楚地讲明了一个令人震惊的共识:作为我们蔬菜生产中最重要的浇灌之宝,内华达山脉在未来的常态是山上积雪很少甚至是没有积雪。纵然现在从山上积雪融化而来的水已经越来越少了,中央谷地农业这个庞然大物对浇灌用水的胃口却还在越来越大。

原来在种的是可以在干旱季节休耕的四季农作物,而现在改成了需要大量的前期投资和每年都需要浇水的杏仁树和开心果树,这样做的效果是农场谋划对抽取地下水的需求越来越大。在发生了两次大规模旱情的2002至2017年间,农民从山谷地域的地下水层中抽出的水多到可以把路易斯安那州的庞恰特雷恩湖给灌满三次。随着地下水的消失,地面各处会以不匀称且不行预测的方式沉降和下沉,这种现象称为沉降。

到2017年,中央谷地的大部门地域每年的下沉高达2英尺。除了破坏门路,桥梁,衡宇,排污管道和险些所有已建成的基础设施之外,沉降还会使那些从内华达山脉导流雪水的运河缠结损坏。我们就这样进入了一个恶性循环:融雪淘汰意味着政府运营的浇灌渠道中的水流淘汰,这促使农民从地下抽水造成更多的沉降,而沉降进一步破坏这些引水渠道并降低其输水能力,而这又进一步迫使农民从地下抽更多的水,进一步加速这个恶性循环的速度。

如何才气阻止加利福尼亚州的水源淘汰或爱荷华州的土壤退化?其实这谜底并不深奥往东一千七百英里处,那里的主流农业系统正在消耗另一种但同样名贵的资源:土壤。当白人定居者在19世纪从土著住民手中夺取了我们现在所说的玉米带区域时,他们发现了成千上万英里的草原和沼泽地,数百种多年生的野草,高过头顶的豆类植物和鲜花。这些植物的根部深深的扎入地底下,把大气层中的碳转到地下为大量的微生物提供营养物,这些微生物将营养物剖析并循环使用。在地上有大批野牛在田野中觅食,通过粪便把养分循环回给植物,刺激了新植物的生长。

亚博APP

美洲原住民,植物,动物,微生物与气候之间的相互作用留下了雄厚的肥沃表层土,科学家称其为黑沃土。纵然到了今天,美国中西部地域仍号称是地球上四个主要黑沃土地域中最大的黑土区。黑沃土的生长要历经了几千年,但毁掉它只需要几十年。美国殖民定居者的农业将这种名贵稀少的生态区域(土地面积为加利福尼亚的1.5倍)转变为仅生产两种农作物(玉米和大豆)的工厂。

这种农业在生产历程中还会对水造成污染。由于玉米和大豆在春季播种,秋季收获,因此冬季那几个月绝大多数玉米带区域的农田都处于裸露状态,而当狂风雨袭来时,这些裸露在外的土地会受到暴雨的打击。暴雨会把表层土连带农民施的农药和肥料一起冲到小溪流里,最终流入河流,湖泊和墨西哥湾。每年在土地只种植这两种同样的作物还导致了另一个问题,那就是该地域珍贵的玄色表土的流失。

凭据土壤科学家里克·克鲁斯(Rick Cruse)的研究,爱荷华州以及周围的玉米带区域的许多地方的土壤流失是自然补给速度的16倍。同样,气候变化也是一个重要驱动因素。今天的农民遇到的气候与他们祖怙恃其时的气候完全差别:现在非雨季的狂风雨越来越多,土壤蒙受的压力越来越大。

凭据第四次国家气候评估,如果全球温室气体继续增加,到21世纪后期,该地域的降水将增加40%,让这个地域成为全球最重要的农作物地域之一的土壤正在我们眼前消失掉。就在现在要求我们建设起能够有效应对气候变化和全球人口增长的能力的时候,这个至关重要的粮食生产地域却正在退化。如何阻止加利福尼亚州的水源淘汰或爱荷华州的土壤流失?谜底并没有什么深奥。

加利福尼亚州需要缩小农业规模以适应其水资源规模,这意味着美国其它地域应该增加自己的水果和蔬菜产量以弥补加州减产带来的缺口。在玉米地带,美国联邦农场政接应停止补助农民生产过量的玉米和大豆,而应勉励他们举行多样化种植,并在整个冬季保持在土地上有植物笼罩。众所周知这个做法不仅维持了高水平的生产,同时还能掩护土壤,淘汰水污染和对农药化肥的需求。然而,淘汰对农业化学药品的需求会影响到那些农业化学药品公司巨头的利润,而降低玉米和大豆在种植业的主导职位将使那些依赖廉价,高产饲料的肉类公司损失利润。

这些公司将其收入的一部门用于游说和竞选资金,它们的利益影响着美国的农场政策。但这一切都是可以改变的。正如制定理智的气候政策需要提倡一场全社会的运动来打败化石燃料行业的游说组织的气力一样,更好的农业体制也需要直接在政治上挑战那些农业巨头。

实际上,气候正义和食品正义是同一场斗争,这是一场推翻那些大公司的主导职位,并使所有人都享有宜居世界的伟大斗争。在开始阅读英文原文之前,请先温习下列焦点词汇:change course - 改变路径,改变门路collapse - v. 垮塌feature - v. 精选hearty - adj. 丰盛的fatten - v. 喂肥corn - n. 玉米soybean - n. 大豆vegetable - n. 蔬菜landscape - n. 风物twin - n. 双胞胎twin - adj. 成双的jewel - n. 宝石,珠宝首饰ecological - adj. 生态的unravel - v. 瓦解flourish - v. 繁荣,茁壮发展swath - n. 割下的一行草swaths of - 一大片Mediterranean - adj. 地中海的Mediterranean climate - 地中海气候,指一年四季的气候都比力温和sierra - n. 锯齿状山脉,一般指在美洲的山脉The Sierra Nevada - 内华达山脉cache - n. (秘密)储存物cascade - v. 倾泻canal - n. 运河aqueduct - n. 渡槽deliver - v. 运送irrigation - n. 浇灌adjoining - adj. 旁边的Central Valley - 中央谷地light-snow years - 下雪少的年份tap - v. 使用aquifer - n. 地下含水层snowpack - n. 积雪dwindle - v. 淘汰articulate - v. 清楚说明alarming - adj. 让人警惕的consensus - n. 共识patch - n. (和周边差别的)小块,小片behemoth - n. 巨头ravenous - adj. 极其饿的almond - n. 杏仁pistachio - n. 开心果grove - n. 树丛upfront - adj. 坦率的,预付的drought - n. 干旱siphon - v. 吸走,抽走subsidence - n. 沉降soil - n. 土壤fertile - adj. 肥沃的topsoil - n. 表层土mollisol - n. 黑沃土deluge - n. 暴雨,洪流negate - v. 使无效agrochemical - n. 农业化学药品manure - n. 肥料pesticide - n. 杀虫剂fertilizer - n. 肥料lobby - n. 游说团体regime - n. 体制在温习了以上词汇后,请将下面的英文原文一口吻读完,不要在中途停下往复查那些不认识的单词。有了上面的焦点单词打底,你完全可以将整篇文章读完而且明白内里的大致意思。

记着,你只要做到大致明确就可以了。阅读能力和阅读量成正比,要提高阅读量,必须是大量的泛读,如果要对每个不懂的单词都去查字典,那么就不行能通过大量的泛读来提高你的阅读量。这篇英语原文是《涂博士雅思领导课》直播班上用来训练学员快速阅读的文章之一。

亚博APP

能够快速阅读各个领域的原版文章并找出文中的焦点内容,是真正学好英语的最最基础的技术之一,另一个最最基础的技术就是听得懂原版的广播。有了这两个最最基础的技术打底,学员就可以使用好网上大量的原版英语文章和听力资源,不出国就可以把自己沉醉在英语的情况当中。在建设起强大的语感之后,口语和写作能力都市自然发展起来。

如果你对某篇泛读文章特别喜欢,可以在泛读一遍以后再逐步地精读。如果在精读的历程中对某些句子不是太明确需要解说,或者你希望以后多看到哪方面的双语阅读,请直接联系涂博士。

Unless we change course, the US agricultural system could collapseTom PhilpottThe GuardianPicture an ideal dinner plate. If you're like most Americans, it features a hearty portion of meat, from animals fattened on midwestern corn and soybeans, and a helping of vegetables, largely trucked in from California. The unique landscapes we rely on to deliver this bounty – the twin jewels of the US food system – are locked in a state of slow-motion ecological unravelling.California's agricultural sector has flourished from decades of easy access to water in one of the globe's biggest swaths of Mediterranean climate. The Sierra Nevada, the spine of mountains that runs along California's eastern flank, captures an annual cache of snow that, when it melts, cascades into a network of government-built dams, canals and aqueducts that deliver irrigation water to farmers in the adjoining Central Valley. In light-snow years, farmers could tap aquifers that had built up over millennia to offset the shortfall.But the Sierra snowpack has shown an overall declining trend for decades – most dramatically during the great California drought of 2012-2016 – and it will dwindle further over the next several decades as the climate warms, a growing body of research suggests. A 2018 paper by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers articulates the alarming consensus: a “future of consistent low-to-no snowpack” for the Sierra Nevada, the irrigation jewel of our vegetable patch.Even as snowmelt gushing from the mountains dwindles, the Central Valley farming behemoth gets ever more ravenous for irrigation water, switching from annual crops that can be fallowed in dry years to almond and pistachio groves, which require huge upfront investments and need to be watered every year. As a result, farm operations are increasingly resorting to tapping the water beneath them. Between 2002 and 2017, a period including two massive droughts, farmers siphoned enough water from the valley's aquifers to fill Louisiana's Lake Pontchartrain three times.As the water vanishes, the ground settles and sinks in uneven and unpredictable ways, a phenomenon known as subsidence. By 2017, large sections of the Central Valley were sinking by as much as 2ft a year. In addition to damaging roads, bridges, houses, sewage pipes and pretty much all built infrastructure, subsidence snarls up the canals that carry snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada. Thus we have a vicious circle: reduced snowmelt means less water flowing through government-run irrigation channels, which pushes farmers to pump more water from underground, causing more subsidence that damages those channels and reduces their flow capacity, pushing farmers to accelerate the cycle by pumping more water from underground.There's no great mystery about how to halt the withering away of California's water or Iowa's soilSeventeen hundred miles to the east, the prevailing agriculture system consumes a different but equally precious resource: soil. When white settlers seized what we now call the corn belt from indigenous inhabitants in the 19th century, they found thousands of miles of prairies and marshlands, with hundreds of species of perennial wild grasses, legumes and flowers that towered over their heads, with roots plunging just as deep into the earth, burying carbon from the atmosphere and feeding a teeming web of micro-organisms that break down and cycle nutrients. Above ground, vast herds of bison ate their way through fields, stimulating new plant growth and recycling nutrients through their manure.Interactions between Native Americans, plants, animals, microbes and climate left behind a majestic store of fertile topsoil that scientists call mollisol. Even today, the US midwest boasts the largest of four major mollisol stores on the planet. Mollisols develop over millennia yet can be squandered in decades. US colonial-settler agriculture transformed this ecological niche, a land mass 1.5 times the size of California, into a factory churning out just two crops – corn and soybeans.This kind of agriculture fouls water as a matter of course. Since corn and soybeans are planted in the spring and harvested in the fall, the vast majority of corn-belt farmland lies bare for the winter months, leaving the ground naked when storms hit. These deluges pummel bare topsoil and send it – and the agrochemicals and manure farmers apply to it – cascading off farms and into streams and creeks that flow into rivers, lakes and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico. But there's another problem with subjecting the land to the same two crops every year: loss of the region's precious black topsoil. According to research by the soil scientist Rick Cruse, Iowa – and much of the surrounding corn belt – is losing soil at a rate 16 times the pace of natural replenishment.Again, climate change is a driver. Today's farmers encounter a weather regime radically different from that of their grandparents: more intense off-season storms, and thus ever-heavier pressure on the soil. If global greenhouse gases continue rising, the region faces a 40% increase in precipitation by the late 21st century, according to the Fourth National Climate Assessment. The soil that makes one of the globe's most important growing regions so productive is vanishing before our eyes, degrading a crucial food production region at the very time when climate change and global population growth call for building resilience.There's no great mystery about how to halt the withering away of California's water or Iowa's soil. California needs to shrink its agricultural footprint to match the scale of its water resources, which means other regions of the US should ramp up their own fruit and vegetable production to make up the difference. In the corn belt, US federal farm policy should stop paying farmers to overproduce corn and soybeans, and instead push them to diversify their plantings and keep their land covered all winter – practices known to maintain high levels of production while also preserving soil, decreasing water pollution and slashing the need for pesticides and fertilizers.Reduced demand for agrichemicals, however, pinches the bottom line of the agrichemical behemoths, and a turn from corn-and-soybean dominance will dent profits for the meat companies that rely on cheap, overproduced feed. These companies divert a share of their income into lobbying and campaign finance, and their interests shape US farm policy. But it doesn't have to be that way. Just as creating a sane climate policy requires the rise of a social movement to negate the power of the fossil fuel lobby, a better agricultural regime will require a direct political challenge to big agribusiness.Climate justice and food justice are, in fact, the same fight – the struggle to beat back corporate dominance and make the world livable for everyone.。


本文关键词:双语,阅读,美国,农业,体系,面临,庞大,危机,亚博APP手机版

本文来源:亚博APP-www.bachgame.com